London, Treaty of
- The agreements signed in London on 26 April 1915, induced Italy to join the war as an Anglo-French ally with the objective of neutralizing Austria. At war’s end Italy was to gain control over South Tyrol, Trentino, Gorizia, Gradisca, Trieste, Istria, and portions of the Dalmatian Coast. It was also to get a protectorate over Durazzo (Albania), sovereignty over the Dodecanese Islands, and—in Asia Minor—Adalia, if Turkey should be partitioned in Asia. Moreover, if Great Britain and France divided Germany’s colonies, Italy would receive compensation enlarging Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia. In return, Italy pledged to go to war within a month of signing, that is, before 26 May 1915. Not only was the text of this treaty not discussed in Parliament, it was not made public until Russian archives had been opened by the communists in the last year of the war and many documents were published in the neutral Swedish press. Once the United States entered the war and Russia had withdrawn (after the 1917 Revolution and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk), the Treaty of London was a dead letter. The United States had not been a signatory so was not bound to overlook the contradictions between the treaty and President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points, which promised Serbia access to the sea and national self-determination. Italy’s fury when it became clear that the Paris peace conference would renege on the Treaty of London knew no bounds. Italian nationalists deplored the “mutilated peace” and Premier Vittorio Emmanuele Orlando left Paris in disgust in April 1919 (although he later returned to the conference table). In 1916, the Sykes-Picot agreement between Britain and France regarding oil-rich territories in the Middle East excluded Italy, thus necessitating a special treaty to placate Italian interests. This was the Treaty of St. Jean de Maurienne (17 April 1917), which promised Italy Smyrna as well as Adalia—thus, for the first time, showing a readiness to put Ottoman Turks under foreign rule. The treaty was never ratified, and the failure to give Italy a foothold in the Middle East also served as a grievance for postwar Italian governments.See also Fiume; World War I.
Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. Mark F. Gilbert & K. Robert Nilsson. 2007.
Look at other dictionaries:
London, Treaty of — (April 1915) Secret treaty between neutral Italy and the Allied forces of France, Britain, and Russia to bring Italy into World War I. The Allies wanted Italy s participation because of its border with Austria. Italy was promised Trieste,… … Universalium
London, Treaty of — (1839) The final settlement of the dispute over Belgian independence from the Netherlands after the Belgian revolt against Dutch rule had established an independent monarchy in 1830. The Netherlands acknowledged Belgian sovereignty, and the… … Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914
Treaty battleship — A treaty battleship was a battleship built in the 1920s or 1930s under the terms of one of a number of international treaties governing naval construction. [Sumrall, p.25 8] Many of these ships played an active role in the Second World War, but… … Wikipedia
London Naval Treaty — The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, the Empire of Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on April 22, 1930, which regulated submarine warfare and limited naval shipbuilding.Terms of the TreatyIt was an … Wikipedia
Treaty of London (1864) — The Treaty of London in 1864 was in regards to the United Kingdom ceding the United States of the Ionian Islands to Greece. The United Kingdom had held an amical protectorate over the islands since the 1815 Treaty of Paris. The federated United… … Wikipedia
Treaty Faction — The nihongo|Treaty Faction|条約派|Jōyaku ha was an unofficial and informal political faction within the Imperial Japanese Navy in the 1920s 1930s of officers supporting the Washington Naval Treaty.BackgroundThe Washington Naval Treaty , also known… … Wikipedia
treaty — /tree tee/, n., pl. treaties. 1. a formal agreement between two or more states in reference to peace, alliance, commerce, or other international relations. 2. the formal document embodying such an international agreement. 3. any agreement or… … Universalium
London — /lun deuhn/, n. 1. Jack, 1876 1916, U.S. short story writer and novelist. 2. a metropolis in SE England, on the Thames: capital of the United Kingdom. 3. City of, an old city in the central part of the former county of London: the ancient nucleus … Universalium
Treaty of Tordesillas — Front page of the Treaty Created 7 June 1494 in Tordesillas, Spain Rati … Wikipedia
London (disambiguation) — London is the capital of England and the United Kingdom.London may also mean:PlacesPlaces in the United Kingdom*London, the capital city of the United Kingdom **City of London, the small, ancient city (and root of most other Londons) **London… … Wikipedia